Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania, is a country in the Baltic region of Europe. It is one of three Baltic states and lies on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. It borders Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland to the south, and Russia to the southwest, with a maritime border with Sweden to the west. Lithuania is a developed country with a high income, advanced economy, and is a member of the European Union, the Council of Europe, the eurozone, the Schengen Agreement, NATO, and OECD.

Lithuania has a parliamentary republic political system with a head of government (the prime minister) and a head of state (the president) who appoints the prime minister. The country is divided into 60 municipalities, with directly-elected mayors. Lithuania's economy is characterized by sectors such as wholesale and retail trade, transport, accommodation and food services, industry, and public administration.

Historically, Lithuania was a powerful empire that dominated much of eastern Europe in the 14th–16th centuries. It was part of the Polish-Lithuanian confederation for two centuries and was occupied by Russia, Germany, and the U.S.S.R. before declaring independence in 1990. Lithuania was admitted into the European Union and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 2004.

Lithuania has a population that is predominantly ethnic Lithuanian, with smaller numbers of Russians, Poles, Belarusians, Ukrainians, Latvians, Tatars, Roma (Gypsies), and others. There was a significant Jewish community in Lithuania prior to World War II.

If you are planning to visit Lithuania, it is important to be familiar with the requirements of the Schengen Agreement, as Lithuania is a member of the Schengen area. Visitors can drive in Lithuania for up to 90 days with a U.S. driver’s license, and public transportation is considered safe and readily available via taxi, Uber, or bus.