Official and national Languages
Other spoken Languages
Pashto (Pashtu, Pushtu) an Eastern Iranian language, it is the native language of the Pashtun people.
Dari Persian (Fārsī-ye Darī) also known as Afghan Persian.
other Turkic and minor languages.
Armenian (Hayeren) is an independent, one-language subgroup within the Indo-European language family.
The unique Armenian alphabet, which consists of 39 characters, was created in 405 AD by a monk named Mesrop Mashtots.
Russian widely used
Azerbaijani (Azeri; a Turkic language of the Altaic family) 89%
Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6%
English, Farsi, Urdu
The Bhotes (the principal ethnic majority 50%) speak various Tibetan dialects like Tshanglakha and Khenkha, Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects like Lhotsamkha.
Khmer spoken by more than 95% of the population (Khmer language is influenced by spoken and written Thai)
some French still spoken, English increasingly popular as a second language.
Standard Chinese called also Putonghua (普通话) or Mandarin.
Wu 吴语 - spoken in Shanghai and in Zhejiang province and Jiangsu province.
Yue 粤 - Cantonese, official in Hong Kong and Macau.
English (Hong Kong), Portuguese (Macau), Tibetan (Tibet), Mongolian (Inner Mongolia).
Other Chinese dialects like Min, Hakka (Kejia), Gan and Xiang.
Russian, Armenian, Azeri and other.
note: Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia.
English (the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication)
Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Kannada, Kashmiri, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Panjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu.
Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay)
English, Dutch, local dialects, the most widely spoken of which is Javanese.
Persian and Persian dialects 58% (Farsi)
Turkic dialects 26%, Kurdish 9%, Luri 2%, Balochi 1%, Arabic
Arabic (Arabiyya), Kurdish (official since 8 March 2004)
Assyrian (Syriac-Aramaic), Armenian, Turcoman
Hebrew (Ivrit), Arabic
Yiddish, Ladino, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Tat, and Judeo-Berber,
English is the major foreign language.
English widely understood among upper and middle classes.
Kazakh (Qazaq, state language) 64.4%, Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the "language of interethnic communication") 95%
Korean (Choso'nmal or Choson'o)
Korean (Hangungmal); Korean is written in Hangeul, the Korean alphabet.
English widely taught in junior high and high school.
English widely spoken.
note: in December 2001, the Kyrgyzstani legislature made Russian an official language, equal in status to Kyrgyz.
Thai, French, English, and various ethnic languages
French, English, Armenian
Putonghua (Mandarin), Portuguese
everyone speaks Yue Chinese (Cantonese), English is used as a "working language".
English, Chinese dialects, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Panjabi, and Thai;
note: in addition, in East Malaysia several indigenous languages are spoken, the largest are Iban and Kadazan.
Maldivian Dhivehi (dialect of Sinhala, script derived from Arabic)
English spoken by most government officials.
Khalkha Mongol (a branch of the Altaic family)
Some English is spoken in tourist destinations,
135 minority ethnic groups have their own languages.
Nepali (official and lingua franca of the country) 90%
sixty ethnic groups, who speak seventy different dialects and eleven major languages like Tibeto-Burman, Lhotsamkha, Nepalbhasa, Tamang languages; minorities Bhutanese (Dzongkha), Tibetan languages, possibly Chinese dialects.
note: many in government and business also speak English
English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects.
Arabic (Arabiyya), Hebrew (Ivrit, spoken by Israeli settlers and many Palestinians)
English (widely understood)
Urdu, English (official and "lingua franca" of Pakistani elite and most government ministries)
Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, Burushaski, and other 8%
Filipino (based on Tagalog) and English. Filipino is the national language. English is also widely used and is the medium of instruction in higher education.
Major dialects: Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocan, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinense.
English commonly used as a second language.
Chinese, Malay, Tamil, English
Sinhala (official and national language) 74%, Tamil (national language) 18%
note: English is commonly used in government and is spoken competently by about 10% of the population.
Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian widely understood; French, English somewhat understood.
Chinese Mandarin (PuTongHua)
Taiwanese (Min), Hakka dialects.
Russian widely used in government and business.
English (secondary language of the elite), ethnic and regional dialects.
note: there are about 16 indigenous languages; Tetum, Galole, Mambae, and Kemak are spoken by significant numbers of people.
Kurdish, Arabic, Armenian, Greek
Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%
United Arab Emirates
Persian, English, Hindi, Urdu
Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
English (increasingly favored as a second language), some French, Chinese, and Khmer; mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)